Since the second edition of this commentary on the Charter of the United Nations was published the text of the Charter may not have changed but the world has. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have had a lasting impact on international law and the Commentary has been fully updated to take their impact into account. The new edition has been completely revised and features a completely new chapter on UN reform, analyzing the effect of reforms which have already been implemented and examining why other proposals for reform have failed. It will assess how these proposals could be improved, with a particular focus on the Security Council. This new edition also includes coverage of the creation of the Human Rights Council and the impact of the Responsibility to Protect doctrine.